AP US History

Litchfield High School

Social Studies Department


Advanced Placement United States History Course Overview:


AP U.S. History is a demanding introduction to American History and culture that assumes a high level of interest and competence. Because this course is similar to a first-year college course, expect that the workload will be heavier than most regular high school history courses. The reward for your hard work is that the analytical thinking, writing, and reading skills developed in AP US History will equip you for college and lifelong learning.

 In order to succeed, you must be motivated to study and keep up with the demands of a college-level course. The AP Exam in May is not optional!  By taking the exam you have the opportunity to demonstrate that you have mastered college-level material and are prepared to enter advanced college courses.

 AP U.S. History integrates political, social, economic, and cultural history in order to convey the experiences of particular groups within the broader perspective of the American past. At the same time, it connects events and issues from the past to the concerns of the present. History shows Americans continuously adapting to new developments as they shape the world in which they live. Often, ordinary Americans from a diverse range of backgrounds are thrust into extraordinary circumstances and the result is an exciting study of social history.  AP US prepares you to become "students of history" by emphasizing following throughout the curriculum:


·        Chronological organization

·        Geographical literacy

·        Point of view

·        Political dynamics

·        Economic patterns

·        Social and cultural trends

·        Analytical reading and writing


 Course Text and Readings:

·       David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. The American Pageant 13th Edition (Boston: McDougal Littlell/Houghton Mifflen, 2005).


·         Eric Foner, The New American History (Temple University Press, 1997)


·      Howard Zinn, A Peoples' History of the United States and Voices of a Peoples' History (New York: Harper Perennial, 2005)


·         Michael P. Johnson,  Reading the American Past Volumes I and II (Boston: Bedford/ ST. Martin’s, 2005)


·          www.merkspages.com : all assignments plus weekly primary source documents and various secondary source readings posted on my web page.


The course follows the College Board required material for AP US History (www.collegeboard.com):


Writing Component:

The practice of writing skills is necessary not only to prepare for the free response section of the AP examination in May, but for success in all areas of education. For this reason, in addition to the historical content the course will emphasize analyzing and interpretation of historical documents, assessing the validity of historical propositions and building an effective argument

Course Evaluations will model the AP US exam format and scoring model: multiple choice, free response and data based questions. Course rubrics are the rubrics used to score the AP exam given in May and are posted on my web page. Unannounced reading Quizzes will be given throughout the year.

Grading Policy:  DBQ and FRQ rubrics will be adapted to follow the same point value system as tests, quizzes, class work and homework. As your writing becomes more proficient the point value of the DBQ will increase: September -November 40 points; December - February 70 points; March - May 100 points.


Curriculum Calendar

Unit 1: Colonial Era



(Text 1-6; Zinn 1-3: Summer Assignment)

Text Chapters 6-7

Zinn Chp 4: Tyranny is Tyranny

Edmund Morgan, The Birth of the Republic, Chapter 3: Sugar and Stamps excerpt

John Locke:  Political Theory against Royal Absolutism

Thomas Paine: Common Sense

Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence

James Chalmer: Plain Truth

Religion and the American Revolution

Road to Revolution Primary Documents

American Affairs: The Revolution from the perspective of a British Historian


Unit Topics/Essential Questions:


  1. How did initial patterns of settlement in English North America evolve into distinctive regional patterns of economic, social, and political organization in the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies?
  2. To what extent and in what ways did the British North American Colonies develop a unique American Cultural identity by 1763?
  3. Why and in what ways did the relationship between Great Britain and the British North American Colonies change after 1763?




  1. Read Edmund Morgan, The Birth of the Republic, Chapter 3: Sugar and Stamps excerpt and Zinn Chp 4: Tyranny is Tyranny and Respond (1-2 pgs typed) to the following qs for class discussion: What are you inclined to doubt in each of these accounts? What is the source of these doubts? How are these both valid perspectives? How does your thinking need to change to embrace more than one, conflicting version of the truth?
  2. Locke/Paine and the creation of the American Ideal: Analyze excerpts from Treaties on Government and Common Sense: Was the American Revolution inevitable? Prepare for Class discussion.
  3. Road to Revolution: A lesson on perspective. Compare assigned documents with American Affairs: The Revolution from the perspective of a British Historian.

Major Activities and Assessments:

1.      THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION: Salutary Neglect to Tyranny

            Students will determine: How did the relationship between the American colonies    and Great Britain transform from friendly trade partners to adversarial, warring          factions?

·         Various primary documents to be examined and presented.

2.      FRQ evaluating the system of mercantilism.

3.      DBQ: New England and the Chesapeake Regions

4.      MCQ: Road to Revolution

Unit II: Revolution, Constitution Making and First Tests 1775-1815



Text Chapters 8-12

Zinn Chapter 5: A Kind of Revolution

Zinn Chapter 6: "The Intimately Oppressed”  

James Thacher: In Our Own Words

Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence

James Chalmer: Plain Truth

Reading the American Past: Making the Case for Constitution: James Madison Federalist Number 10; Mercy Otis Warren Observations on the New Constitution

Articles of Confederation

The Constitution

The Bill of Rights

Washington's Inaugural Address

Hamilton vs. Jefferson debate documents

Important Rulings of the Marshal Court


Essential Questions:

  1. Was the American Revolution Justified?
  2. To what extent was the United States in a crisis under the Articles of Confederation or was this “crisis” exaggerated by the Federalists?
  3. To what extent did the political party system affect the stability of the new nation in both domestic and foreign affairs?
  4. Should the Founding Fathers’ general elitism and indifference to the rights of people, women, African Americans, and Indians be held against them? Or should they be viewed with more understanding in their historical context?
  5. Was the notion of Republican Motherhood and/or the Cult of Domesticity empowering? Did it serve a political function?




  1. Thacher Document: What does Thacher reveal about the social and political mood of the colonies on the day of the signing of the Declaration of Independence?


  1. Zinn Chapter 5

1.      How is the general perception that the Revolution engendered the separation of church and state challenged by Zinn?

2.      How did land confiscated from Loyalists reflect the Revolution’s effect on class relations?

3.      How does Edmund S. Morgan’s summary of the class nature of the Revolution challenge the popular perception of the Revolution and its ideals? How does Richard Morris’ statement also challenge popular perception? Explain Carl Degler’s assertion that "no new social class came to power throughout the door of the American revolution."

4.      What was the impact of America’s victory on the Native Americans?

5.      Explain Jennings’ statement: The Revolution was a "multiplicity of variously oppressed and exploited peoples who preyed upon each other."


  1. Zinn Chapter 6


1.      Was the notion of Republican Motherhood and/or the Cult of Domesticity empowering? Did it serve a political function?

2.      Why would women resist societal change that would, according to feminist advocates, improve their political and economic status?

3.      What was to be gained by denying women full economic and political participation?

4.      How did antebellum women define themselves? In what ways did these women exercise—and define—power and influence?

5.      In what ways did this debate reflect the prevailing tensions of race, class, region, and religion in American society?


4.      The Articles vs. The Constitution:

·         Articles of Confederation: Identify Strengths and weaknesses to determine why the Articles were replaced with the United States Constitution. Complete Questions Articles of Confederation 1-8  and the Constitution Packet.




5.      Federalist vs. Anti Federalist Debate


·         What arguments did anti-Federalists use against the Constitution?  Why were they suspicious of the government it created?  How did the Federalists respond to anti-Federalist critiques?


·         Why did the Anti-Federalists oppose the Constitution?  Why did the Federalists prevail? In what sense were the Anti-Federalists more democratic than their Federalist opponents? 


·         Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Great Debate (1791–1801)


6.      The Marshall Court


·         What was the ruling of the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison?  Why is this ruling significant? 

·         Though in his decision, Chief Justice Marshall (a Federalist) ruled against Marbury (a Federalist), in what sense did the ruling promote Federalist party principles? 

·         What do the rulings of the Marshall Court reveal about its stance on the balance between federal power and state power? On the role of the judicial branch in government?  On property rights?  On capitalism?  In what sense do these rulings reflect the times? 

·         How might the court’s interpretation of key clauses of the Constitution set a precedent for future cases?  What impact did the Marshall Court have on the U.S. government and the U.S. economy?



Major Activities and Assessments:


  1. Trial Simulation: Thomas Jefferson: Hero or Traitor?


·         Assessment: Two page typed introduction of character witness and position taken on topic; oral presentation.


  1. FRQs:

·         To what extent was the new nation successful in meeting crucial tests during its first 25 years?

·         To what extent was the court’s commitment to the values of national supremacy, economic competition and judicial power evidenced in the following cases: Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden?

  1. MCQ: Chapters 8-12
  2. DBQ: Impact of the Constitution



Unit Three: Westward Expansion, the Market Revolution and Democracy 1815-1860



Text 13-15

Zinn Chapter 8: We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God

Maps and Charts on Westward Expansion

Hudson River School Artwork

Various secondary sources on Jacksonian Democracy and the Market Economy

Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress

Samuel Cloud on the Trail of Tears (1838)

Modern History Source Book: The Lowell Mill Girls

Godey's Lady Book

Martha Ballard's diary

Major author’s of Transcendentalism

Time line:  The Second American Party System and the Tariff 1816-1860



Unit topics/Essential Questions:


1.      The American Ideals and westward expansion: Why was the forced removal of the Cherokee Nation particularly tragic? Consider the following:

o       Cherokee's ability to "Americanize"

o       John Marshall's ruling

2.      To what extent was Jackson’s political battles connected to the emerging two-party system? Was Jackson truly a “tribune of the people” or a crude frontier despot?

3.      In what ways did the early industrial development affect labor and society?  How did the change from sustenance to a market economy affect workers, farmers and women?

4.      Was the Art and Literature of the time period a consequence of, or a reaction against, the major trends of the era?

Major Assignments, Activities and Assessments:


  1. The Rise of Mass Democracy: Using the PERSIA method, prepare a study guide and present each (assigned) topic.
  2. Research one of the early inventions discussed in the chapter (the cotton gin, sewing machine, mechanical reaper, telegraph, steam engine, etc.) and its relation to economic growth. Consider the social and economic conditions propagating technological progress.
  3. Hudson River School Project: Manifest Destiny: Confronting the Frontier Myth. Students will couple transcendental literature with Frontier inspired paintings to determine if art and literature of the time period was a consequence of, or reaction against westward expansion and industrial development.
  4. Create a chart comparing the first political system to the second and explain in writing how they were similar and or different.
  5. Cult of Womanhood/Popular Culture: Godey's Lady Book analysis.
  6. Zinn vs Text: The Native American Experience
  7. DBQ: Jackson Era
  8. MCQ: Text 13-15


Unit IV: One Nation, Divisible. 1820-1878



Text Chapter 16 – 22

Zinn Chapter 9: Slavery Without Submission, Emancipation Without Freedom

Territorial Expansion Primary Documents

Reading the American Past: The New West and the Free North, 1840-1860 (221-238); The House Divided 1846-1861 (260 – 274)

Leadership and Legitimacy during the Civil War Documents

Jim Crow Image Collection

Plessy v. Ferguson

Strange Fruit: Billy Holiday


Unit Topics/Essential Questions:


1.      Is the Constitution a pro slave document? In what sense did the dispute over slavery during the first half of the 19th century become a constitutional issue? What impact did this have on the slave controversy? What does this reveal about the role of the constitution in American politics?


2.      John Brown: Hero or Terrorist? Why did abolitionists have such a great impact even though they were an unpopular minority?

3.      Why did the United States fight a Civil War? Perception vs. reality

4.      What divides a people? Classism and Racism in 19th Century America

5.      How successful were American Reconstruction policies in helping former slaves to become politically, socially, and economically part of a free society?

Major Assignments, Activities and Assessments:

1.      Create a map illustrating territorial acquisition. Include dates acquired, cost if applicable, from whom/how and if the territory was slave or free.

2.       The Constitutional Dimensions of the Slavery Controversy: With a partner use the collected documents to determine the constitutional dimensions of the slave controversy.

3.      Class Debate: John Brown: Hero or Terrorist? Students will research primary documents to prepare for debate.

4.      Why did the United States fight a Civil War? Students will brainstorm political, social, economic, cultural, religious, and intellectual reasons for war and compare response to primary documents. Students will determine how to reconcile the documents with the ideas the group discussed and any conclusions reached. Students will consider how do decisions get made and who gets to make them and what this reveals about perception vs. reality in the study of history.

5.      Zinn reading response questions: preparation for student led discussions on What divides a people: class, race, and the American promise.

6.      Create an American Reconstruction power point: Use the PERSIA format to determine how successful were American Reconstruction policies in helping former slaves to become politically, socially, and economically part of a free society. 15 slide maximum, MLA format.

7.      Plessy v. Ferguson: Case analysis

8.      Case study: Lynching in America

9.      FRQ: Assess the validity of the following statement: “The American government had set out to fight the slave states in 1861, not to end slavery, but to retain the enormous national territory and market and resources.” (Howard Zinn)

10.  DBQ: Slavery and Sectional Attitudes, 1830-1860

11.  Unit MCQ



Unit V: Consequences of Industrialization 1870-1919



Text: Chapters 23- 30

Zinn: The Other Civil War Chapter 10

Through Women's Eyes: An American History through Documents:  Chapter 7

Women's Suffrage in Political Cartoons

James McCormick: Public Life in Industrial America 1870 – 1920; Immigration and Industry (Eric Foner text)

Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives

Various Supreme Court Cases

Selection of primary documents on Industrial Accidents in Literature and Press

Upton Sinclair: The Jungle excerpts.

Child Labor in America  photographs

Lyman Frank Baum: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz excerpts.

Progressive Movement and National Politics Political cartoons

Imperialism, Anti Imperialism and Social Darwinism primary documents and political cartoons


Unit Topics/Essential Questions:

1.      Women’s Suffrage: How did the arguments used by modern suffrage movement reflect the spirit of progressivism?    Why were some women ambivalent about women's suffrage? Did the acceptance of women's suffrage in the twentieth century represent a fundamental shift in Americans' views of women and their role in society? 

2.      Role of the Court: What do the Supreme Court rulings at the turn of the century suggest about the way the Supreme Court and the American people view the impact of progressive reform on economic liberty? What does this indicate about the way Americans feel about the role of government in restraining business?

3.      Politics and Political Reform: What were the principle grievances of the farmers? To what extent were they able to address their economic problems through political action? Why did workers find it so difficult to organize and sustain unions? To what extent were workers successful in having their grievances redressed? What were the major problems with state and local political systems? To what extent were reformers able to address these problems?

4.      Social /Cultural Response: How are literature and the press utilized to promote change in society?

5.      Immigration: To what extent is the United States a land of refuge and opportunity for immigrants?

6.      Presidential Policy/Diplomacy and Progressive Reform: How did TR, Taft, and Wilson propagate progressivism both at home and abroad?



Major Assignments and Activities:


1.      The Other Civil War: What is Zinn's Thesis? How does he support? Compare this with text Chapter 23.

2.      Create an annotated Women’s Suffrage time line: How did the movement reflect the political, social, and intellectual climate of each time period?  Identify key shifts within the movement. Determine how the movement reflected the political, social, and intellectual climate of the time period.

3.      Pro/Anti Suffrage Political Cartoon Analysis

4.      View Iron Jawed Angels: Discuss Cultural identity and social role of women in early-twentieth century American society. (Post viewing: Socratic Seminar using unit essential questions)

5.      Child Labor in America photograph selection coupled with Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lives: Viewing/reading response

6.      Capitalism and the Constitution: Lochner v. New York (1905) and Muller v. Oregon (1908)

7.      Muckraker web activity (Pace University's Mortola Library) What is a Muckraker? How did/do they affect change in society? Choose 2 historical and 2 current muckrakers and take notes on the social ills exposed. Share with the class.

8.      Read and identify the social ills revealed in the following: Industrial accidents in Literature and Press

9.      What is the Wizard of Oz really about? Populism and the Election of 1896: Read excerpts of the Wizard of Oz to determine if the “parable on populism”. Brainstorm who or what the characters in the story represent and why they are portrayed this way.

10.  Immigration patterns and statistics: analysis of primary documents, charts, and government policies.

11.  Imperialism, Evolution and Social Darwinism in early 20th century America: Read excerpts and discuss how overseas expansion was justified and or disputed.

12.   Compare and Contrast the diplomacy of TR, Taft, and Wilson and identify how each propagated progressive policy at home and abroad.

13.  Interpret imperialist/anti imperialist political cartoons and analyze how satire, exaggeration, and frequently humor are used to critique events in history.  

14.  Wilson Simulation



1.      Create a DBQ using documents from Through Women's Eyes: An American History through Documents

2.      DBQ: To what extent was late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century United States expansionism a continuation of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a departure? Use the documents and your knowledge of United States history to 1914 to construct your answer. (1994, DBQ)**

3.      MCQ chps 23-25; 26-30

4.      FRQs: 

·         Analyze the ways in which state and federal legislation and judicial decisions, including those of the Supreme Court, affected the efforts of any TWO of the following groups to improve their position in society between 1880 and 1920. African Americans; Farmers; Workers (1993, question 4)

·         A number of writers and reformers in the period 1865-1914 discussed the growing gap between wealth and poverty in the U.S. Compare and contrast THREE of the following authors' explanations for this condition and their proposals for dealing with it. (A) Henry George, PROGRESS AND POVERTY (B) Edward Bellamy, LOOKING BACKWARD (C) Andrew Carnegie, THE GOSPEL OF WEALTH (D) William Graham Sumner, WHAT SOCIAL CLASSES OWE TO EACH OTHER (E) Upton Sinclair, THE 3UNGLE (1984, question 5)

·         "Throughout its history, the United States has been a land of refuge and opportunity for immigrants." Assess the validity of this statement m view of the experiences of TWO of the following: The Irish in 19th century north east, the Italian in 19th century North East, or the Chinese in the 19th century West.

5.      All activities/assignments have built-in written assessments.



Unit VI: The Pendulum Swing:

Conservativism and Reform in 20th Century America



Text: 31-40

Michael P. Johnson, Reading the American Past Volume II (Boston: Bedford/ ST. Martin’s, 2005)

Zinn Chapter 18: The Impossible Victory: Vietnam

Various primary and secondary documents


Unit Topics/Essential Questions:


1.      How do you account for the fact that the period 1920-1929 combined political conservatism and moral liberalization?

2.      Why did the Crash occur? Why did it lead to such a serious depression? To what extent was the prospect of revolution in the US a real one?

3.      How did the winning of WWII abroad also produce remarkable changes in American life at home?

4.      How did the Cold War change American domestic and foreign policy?

5.      To what extent was the decade of the 1950s a radical departure from traditional American values? How is this contrary to popular images of this time period?

6.      To what extent did the Civil Rights Movement provide impetus for dramatic changes in American life?

7.      Did the Vietnam War call into question or reaffirm American Values?

8.      Should the Supreme Court decide whether abortions should be legal?

9.      How and why did currents of change that swept the nation in the 1960s create even stronger political countercurrents in subsequent decades?

10.   To what extent did the “New World Order” lead to anti-American sentiment?




Major Assignments and Activities

This unit is document based and serves as both a preparation for the exam in May and an opportunity for students to debate/discuss controversial topics in the modern era.

·         The Dust Bowl: Literature, photography, and statistics to determine the cause/effect of the Dust Bowl.

·         Essential Question (5-10) Socratic Seminars using the documents from Reading the American Past. 2 page written responses required for each – due prior to seminar.

·         Vietnam: Compare and Contrast Cold War Presidential Policies and domestic response found in the text with Zinn’s The Impossible Victory: Vietnam.

·         Research the Watergate scandal to determine to what extent the event confirmed the American people’s growing belief that they could not trust their government. Identify lasting effects on the media’s relationship with the White House.




  1. DBQ: President Franklin D. Roosevelt is commonly thought of as a liberal and President Herbert C. Hoover as a conservative. To what extent are these characterizations valid? (1984, DBQ)**


  1. FRQs:


  1. Timed MCQs will be given at least 3 times per week.




  1. All activities/assignments have built-in written assessments.


Course Policies:


Grading Policy: Grades are based on quizzes, papers, tests, homework, class participation, group participation, oral presentations,  and writing writing assignments. A total point system will be used and points will vary by assignment. Quizzes will be given throughout the semester and will be based on homework ( I may or may not announce the quiz so always be prepared to have one!).



Attendance: Regular and Prompt Attendance is Expected! Missing class activities will impede your understanding of the course material. The class experience and discussion cannot be recreated. If illness keeps you out of the classroom for two or more consecutive days, it is your responsibility to check the web page for daily assignments so that you do not fall behind.


Participation: Participating in class is more than simply sharing your opinion on the topic at hand.  Class participation includes: completing homework assignments, coming to class prepared with notebook, pens, etc., asking and answering questions, and behavior.



Detach this last portion and return this page to me signed.


Skills & Habits of Successful APUSH Students


Below are the skills and habits that students will need to succeed in AP US History.  Further developing these skills and habits is a goal of the class, but it is expected that you have already made significant progress in these areas.  If you find yourself deficient in any one of these areas, you might want to reconsider placement. With any situation, students lacking in certain areas but willing to work and improve will find a most supportive teacher, but students unable and more importantly unwilling to work and improve will be actively encouraged to find another placement.


· Attendance:  Regular attendance is an absolute necessity, as class discussions and lectures will cover material not easily found elsewhere.  Absences for school-related activities is expected among advanced students, but it is the responsibility of the student, not the teacher, to make arrangements for work to be turned in and notes to be obtained.  Students with major commitments that will require extensive, prolonged absences should rethink their enrollment in AP US History.

· Participation:  A successful class depends on student participation to bring in diverse ideas, interpretations and questions.  Additionally, a student’s individual grade will depend in part on his/her personal participation.  Contributions need not be earth-shattering, but they must be regular and substantive.

· Homework:  Students should expect to have homework on a daily basis.  It is understood that students learn in many different ways, and a variety of assignments will be incorporated into the course.  But students considering enrolling should understand that APUSH is a reading- and writing-intensive course. Exams:  Tests in APUSH are quite rigorous, consisting of multiple choice, short answer, and essay questions.  Exams will assess students’ factual and analytical mastery of the material.  Every unit will end with an exam, usually one every two weeks, and these exams will be reflective of the AP Exam students may take in the spring.

· Reading:  Students must be able to read quickly and with understanding both primary sources and analytical, secondary sources. Students should be able to read for the main idea while culling appropriate factual information.  A textbook will serve as the main reading, but it will be supplemented regularly with mandatory outside readings. Students can expect to regularly read 70 pages of textbook material a week as well as primary sources and supplementary readings.

· Note-taking:  Students should be prepared to take notes on everything!  Only a slight exaggeration, notes on readings and lectures are a necessity, and they will also serve as assignments throughout the course.  The fast pace of APUSH and the complexity of the material make it absolutely essential that students utilize a method for organizing the large quantity of content that must be mastered in APUSH.

· Writing:  APUSH builds on the analytical skills developed in Honors Western Civilization.  Students will be expected to effectively communicate their ideas in writing.  Formal papers, take-home essays, and timed essays will all be utilized.  Papers will be assessed based on factual content, analytical depth and breadth, as well as the focus correction areas being addressed.  Most students will find writing the most challenging portion of the course, as everything will be assessed at a higher level.

Personal Academic & Intellectual Responsibility:  The Essential APUSH Quality


APUSH is not specifically required for graduation.  Students who take APUSH are doing so because they seek the challenge and take on the responsibility – those who signed up for any other reason are strongly encouraged to reconsider Advanced Placement.  APUSH students understand that much is to be gained if much effort and energy is expended.  APUSH students and parents understand that the upcoming year will be filled with challenges, crises, controversies, but most importantly great reward.  They also understand that success will require a great deal of personal responsibility and initiative.  Students will be provided with many tools and opportunities to succeed, but they must choose to take advantage of them.  As such, the final and most important expectation of APUSH:

· Unassigned Work:  Students are responsible for their own intellectual and academic development.  While the assignments and projects in APUSH are designed to assist in that development, a great deal of the most important tasks will never be assigned for points.  Students will rarely, if ever, be assigned chapter notes, unit vocabulary or online quizzes, but all of these tools will be available to students.  It will be up to each individual to determine the study habits that will lead to success in APUSH and utilize them to achieve the desired results on quizzes, tests, semester grades and the AP Exam.





Your signature indicates that you have read and understand the syllabus and criteria needed to succeed in an advanced placement history class. If you have any concerns or questions please contact me.




Wendy Mercurio

Social Studies Department

Litchfield High School




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