Civil Rights Movement (1955-1960)

1)      Events

a)      Murder of Emmett Till-boy from Chicago

i)        Whistle @ white women…murdered by women’s husband and brother

(1)   Emmett=martyr

ii)      Open-casket funeral…huge media coverage

iii)    Mrs. Till & Mose Wright (uncle) spoke against whites

iv)    Murders convicted not guilty…all white jury

b)      Montgomery Bus Boycott (Dec.1, 1955)

i)        Non-violent

ii)      Rosa Parks-white section >SC integrating buses

c)      Little Rock, Arkansas

i)        Desegregation of schools-state vs. federal

(1)   Nt’l Guard vs. U.S. Army

ii)      “Little Rock 9”-good AA students

(1)   Escorted by “101st Hall Monitors”(U.S. Air Force)

iii)    1st integrated school

d)     Sit-ins-Greensboro, NC…Nashville, TN…big media… Purpose-be arrested

i)        Jim Lawson non-violent workshop…rules on sitting, clothes etc

ii)      Both black and whites worked together

e)      Freedom Rides…integrate buses on state line

i)        Washington D.C. >deep south

ii)      SNCC-main org.

iii)    JFK sends federal troops

f)       March on Washington…250,000-300,000 b&w together

i)        “I have a dream”

ii)      No riots – fed gov’t expected chaos

g)      Birmingham-“Bombingham”…AL

i)        Media=big…spraying water

ii)      Church bombing…4 kids killed

h)      Mississippi Burning…shows S problems

i)        Get AA to vote (3 guys…two white, one black, one Jew)…KKK kills them

ii)      Kennedy passes-Voting Rights Act of 1965

(1)   Verify 15th Amendment

i)        Black Power Movement…Malcolm X founded ideology…ghetto-ised

i)        Black panthers…stop being “victims”

ii)      Olympics-black fists

2)      People

a)      Martin Luther King-minister from church…non-violent civil rights activist…killed 1968

b)      JFK-35 pres…not elected as civil rights activist…brother Robert Attorney G. more active than JFK killed in 1963 (end of CRM)

c)      Malcolm X-fighting back…Islam…black supremacy…big media…killed by Islams (blacks)

 

II. Phases – NAACP lawsuits, legislative branch won’t budge – senate filibuster

            A. Go to courts – Brown v. Board, but not enforceable

B. Executive branch finally steps in Ike>Little Rock, Kennedy>Freedom Rides, Johnson>Civil Rights Act

1. Before governors and states had ruled, finally federal gov’t stops allowing South to have separate rules

III. Cooperation – Early part, blacks and whites worked together in SNCC, CORE

            A. Conflicts between conservative SCLC and NAACP, the big moneymakers and SNCC & CORE the actual activists

            B. By late 1960s, Black Power mvmt emerges wanting nothing to do with white help