You will be required to write ONE of the following essays in class on Thursday February 7th.  You will not know which one you will have to write, so be sure to prepare for ALL of the essays.  Feel free to bring a 3"x5" index card with any notes.  Any materials larger than 3"x5" will be confiscated!



  1. How did the Supreme Court and southern state governments gut the 14th and 15th amendments of their substance and efficacy? Include the following Supreme Court Cases in your response:



 2. What were the prevailing racial attitudes of most Americans in post-reconstruction America?




3. What factors turned black Americans into second class citizens? 






4. What is lynching and why did white mobs target black Americans with increasing frequency between the 1880s and the 1930s? 


5. Defend or oppose one of the following quotes: