United States History Honors

Quarter III Essay (Due March 9th)


Unit III Essential Question: How and why do Societies Change?

Essay Guiding Question:

Did the acceptance of women's suffrage in 1920 represent a fundamental shift in Americans' views of women and their role in society or is timing really everything?



Performance Standards:

Students will…

Ø      Trace the evolving nature of citizen’s rights (1.1)

Ø      Analyze how a specific environment has influenced historical developments in a region of  the United States (1.5)

Ø      demonstrate an under-standing of the ways race, gender, ethnicity and class issues have affected individuals and societies in the past (1.13)

Ø      Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources; compose  a thesis statement using primary and secondary sources; cite evidence from a source to determine an authors point of view; analyze and explain multi purpose visual materials (2.2)

Ø      gather, analyze, and reconcile historical information, including contradictory data, from primary and secondary sources to support or reject hypotheses (3.1)




Since the founding of this nation, women have articulated their desire – their fundamental right - to political enfranchisement. From Abigail Adam’s gentle reminders, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s strident use of founding documents, freedwomen’s campaign for  racial and gender recognition as citizen; to the temperance crusade, Susan B. Anthony/Carrie Chapman Catt’s National American Women’s Suffrage Association and Alice Paul’s militant National Women’s Party, plus the emerging unions representing late 19th century -20th immigrants and the working poor, women had labored for their civil liberties. Each phase of the suffrage movement faced political, social, intellectual, and cultural road blocks; the anti-suffrage women proved to be as determined as the suffragette and worked tirelessly to preserve the ideal of Republican Motherhood. Why 1920 and not 1789 or 1866? What, if anything, had changed?



The task before you is more than determining how and why American women’s suffrage became law in 1920. You will research not only the women and men associated with suffrage but the major historical events, cultural mores, intellectual influence, and shifts in economy (18th cent through 1920) to determine how and why societies change. The guiding question is purposely open-ended. You are to closely read/examine the primary documents provided and identify a tipping point for the movement (some examples: the Civil War, Westward Expansion, and the Progressive Movement). The tipping point will drive your hypothesis; your supporting evidence will trace not only suffrage from Abigail Adams to Alice Paul, but the key agents of societal change within each phase of the movement.



Writing Check List:


Your Intro


ü     Intro clearly explains how societies change [staying within the time frame of the essay]

ü     Seamlessly carries the reader into the American Suffrage Movement

ü     Gives reader a sampling of broader social and cultural issues explored in argument


Your Thesis…


ü      Is arguable! Ask yourself “so what?” [your position] if you can’t answer then rewrite.

ü      Answers guiding question, is clear [don’t make me guess…I will STOP]  and complex [avoid “black and white” argument – go for the grey]

ü      Located at end of introductory  paragraph


Your Evidence…


ü      Is substantial, meaningful and applicable evidence is used to support thesis ideas

ü     is clearly explained and connected to thesis ideas

ü     included with attention to balance and variety

ü     meets minimum requirements (5 docs provided; 3 outside sources)

Your Analysis…

ü      Shows critical insight  and creative synthesis of information

ü      Uses information thoughtfully

ü      In-depth source analysis

ü      Critical reading evident

 Your Organization and Structure…

ü      are clearly defined and complimentary to thesis

ü      Reader is aided in understanding of paper by paragraph usage [rather than trying to figure out where the paper is going/what the heck you are talking about…]

Your Conclusion…

ü      connects back to your thesis without being repetitive

ü      reinforces your position with creative insight and thoughtfulness


Note: Late Papers result in  10 point deduction per day; forfeit rewrite option

Social Studies Annotated Rubric/Levels of Performance Honors

Honors Requirement: All essays scoring below a 4must be rewritten to Mastery

Above Mastery









11th grade: Rewrite grade  capped at 89

Approaching Mastery







Below Basic





Arguable thesis


Answers guiding question


Gives clear indication to content of paper


Located at end of introductory  paragraph

Possible problems:

Thesis is too general

Location is not at end of introductory paragraph

Possible problems:

Thesis lacks analysis

Thesis is too simple

Thesis provides minimal connection

There is no evidence of a stated position



amount of meaningful and applicable evidence is used to support thesis ideas 


 Evidence is clearly explained and connected to thesis ideas


Sources are included with attention to balance and variety


Correct use of MLA throughout

Sufficient (5/3) amount of applicable evidence is used to support thesis ideas


Evidence is clearly  connected to thesis ideas


 A variety of sources included with some unevenness


MLA used with minor errors

Possible problems:

Evidence used may not be sufficiently persuasive


Evidence may be lacking explanation and in need of development


Evidence may be used improperly (too long, paraphrased)


A variety of sources included but with significant unevenness

Possible Problems:

Evidence used is not persuasive


Evidence may be too general or lacking detail


Evidence used but explanation is irrelevant or illogical


Evidence may be improperly used (too long, paraphrased)

Lacking relevant evidence

Analysis and Interpretation

Shows critical insight


Creative synthesis of information


Uses information thoughtfully


In-depth source analysis


Critical reading evident


Shows some critical insight


Some creative synthesis of information


Sometimes uses information thoughtfully


Some in-depth source analysis


Some critical reading evident

Critical insight needs development


Creative synthesis of information needs development  


Needs development in using information thoughtfully

In-depth source analysis needs development


Critical reading needs development

 Limited critical insight


Limited creative synthesis of information  

Limited use of information thoughtfully


Limited source analysis


Limited critical reading





Lacking insight and analysis of sources

Organization and Structure

Org. and Struc. are clearly defined and complimentary to thesis


Reader is aided inunderstanding of paper by paragraph usage

Org. and Struc. are clearly defined 


Paragraph usage is logical and consistent


Possible Problems:


Org. and Struc. follow some guidelines but may not be consistent


Paragraph usage is not conducive to understanding of thesis


Possible Problems:


Org. and Struc. are lacking focus or consistency


Paragraph usage is illogical


Structure/paragraph usage illogical


Intro clearly explains  how societies change


Seamlessly carries the reader into the American women’s suffrage movement as an example of how societies change


Gives reader a sampling of broader social and cultural issues explored in argument


Will contain thesis

Intro explains   how societies change   


Carries  the reader into  the  into the American women’s suffrage movement as an example of how societies change


Gives reader some sampling of broader social and cultural issues explored in argument


Will contain thesis 

 Intro adequately explains how societies change     


Carries  the reader adequately  into the American women’s suffrage movement as an example of how societies change


Gives reader adequate sampling of broader social and cultural issues explored in argument


Will contain thesis 

 Intro minimally explains  how societies change    


Carries  the reader minimally  into the American women’s suffrage movement as an example of how societies change


Gives reader minimal sampling of broader social and cultural issues explored in argument


Will contain thesis  

Intro fails to establish how societies change; no connection to the idea of  the American women’s suffrage movement as an example of how societies change

Thesis unclear


Provides connections that are creative, insightful and thoughtful 

Provides some connections that are creative, insightful and thoughtful 

Provides simple connections that could use some  development 

Provides simple connections that are in need of significant  development 

Conclusion is missing or is simply restating the thesis




















































































Self Assessment:____







 Do Not Procrastinate!

This paper was designed to challenge your reading, writing and thinking skills.

 This will take many hours of researching before you can begin to formulate a position, let alone write the essay!



 The required documents:

Here you go...Have fun - be brilliant -  make me proud




Wave I

Women and the American Promise - Post Revolutionary America


Image 1 

Liberty and Washington
New York or Connecticut, 1805-1815, Oil on canvas, 74x44"
Courtesy: Fenimore Art Museum, Cooperstown, NY





Abigail Adams

Remember the Ladies

Later Correspondence


Abigail Adams:  “A Difficult Mother”

John Adams

Abigail Adams

John Quincy Adams



No matter how good a letter writer and observer of the passing scene, Abigail Adams had her failings as a mother.  She wanted to possess her “Johnny,” to forge his every move, to drive him in the path of righteousness.  If her discipline was severe enough, maybe her son would be saved from the fate of her own brother, who had deserted his wife and family for loose women and easy drink, eventually to die an alcoholic.  When Johnny accompanied his father to Paris, he was followed by a chain of letters warning him to avoid worldly temptations.  Back home again, the passionate young man fell in love, but try as he might to keep his infatuation quiet, the suspicious and dictatorial Abigail sniffed the situation out and put a swift end to it.  “Never form connections until you see a prospect of supporting a family,” she wrote in one of her withering letters.  John Quincy was emotionally destroyed; he was never quite the same person again, and the cold, austere man who would later be so famous now started to appear.  He developed a disdain for women and began seeking out common streetwalkers in Boston for sexual adventures.  His appointment as American minister to Holland helped launch his independence and allowed him to meet and pursue his future bride in England.  But it wasn’t until Abigail heard of the romance and tried to squash this one, too, that he finally charged into marriage.  When his own children arrived, he could not keep himself from acting toward them very much as his mother had toward him, and, even though secondhand, a new generation was to feel Abigail Adams’s severe manner of parenting.  None of this seemed to affect John Quincy’s lifelong adoration for his mother, who when she died at seventy-four, was “beloved and lamented more than language can express.”  He neglected, however, to attend her funeral.


Taken from The American President

By Philip B. Kunhardt, Jr., Philip B. Kunhardt III, and Peter W. Kunhardt



A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

by Mary Wollstonecraft 1792


Mary Wollstonecraft


It is not necessary to inform the sagacious reader, now I enter on my concluding reflections, that the discussion of this subject merely consists in opening a few simple principles, and clearing away the rubbish which obscured them. But, as all readers are not sagacious, I must be allowed to add some explanatory remarks to bring the subject home to reason--to that sluggish reason, which supinely takes opinions on trust, and obstinately supports them to spare itself the labour of thinking.

Moralists have unanimously agreed, that unless virtue be nursed by liberty, it will never attain due strength--and what they say of man I extend to mankind, insisting that in all cases morals must be fixed on immutable principles; and, that the being cannot be termed rational or virtuous, who obeys any authority, but that of reason.

To render women truly useful members of society, I argue that they should be led, by having their understandings cultivated on a large scale, to acquire a rational affection for their country, founded on knowledge, because it is obvious that we are little interested about what we do not understand. And to render this general knowledge of due importance, I have endeavoured to show that private duties are never properly fulfilled unless the understanding enlarges the heart; and that public virtue is only an aggregate of private. But, the distinctions established in society undermine both, by beating out the solid gold of virtue, till it becomes only the tinsel-covering of vice; for whilst wealth renders a man more respectable than virtue, wealth will be sought before virtue; and, whilst women's persons are caressed, when a childish simper shows an absence of mind--the mind will lie fallow. Yet, true voluptuousness must proceed from the mind--for what can equal the sensations produced by mutual affection, supported by mutual respect? What are the cold, or feverish caresses of appetite, but sin embracing death, compared with the modest overflowings of a pure heart and exalted imagination? Yes, let me tell the libertine of fancy when he despises understanding in woman-- that the mind, which he disregards, gives life to the enthusiastic affection from which rapture, short-lived as it is, alone can flow! And, that, without virtue, a sexual attachment must expire like a tallow candle in the socket, creating intolerable disgust. To prove this, I need only observe, that men who have wasted great part of their lives with women, and with whom they have sought for pleasure with eager thirst, entertain the meanest opinion of the sex. Virtue, true refiner of joy!--if foolish men were to fright thee from earth, in order to give loose to all their appetites without a check--some sensual wight of taste would scale the heavens to invite thee back, to give a zest to pleasure!

That women at present are by ignorance rendered vicious, is, I think, not to be disputed; and, that salutary effects tending to improve mankind might be expected from a REVOLUTION in female manners, appears, at least, with a face of probability, to rise out of the observation. For as marriage has been termed the parent of those endearing charities which draw man from the brutal herd, the corrupting intercourse that wealth, idleness, and folly, produce between the sexes, is more universally injurious to morality than all the other vices of mankind collectively considered. To adulterous lust the most sacred duties are sacrificed, because before marriage, men, by a promiscuous intimacy with women, learned to consider love as a selfish gratification--learned to separate it not only from esteem, but from the affection merely built on habit which mixes a little humanity with it. Justice and friendship are also set at defiance, and that purity of taste is vitiated which would naturally lead a man to relish an artless display of affection rather than affected airs. But that noble simplicity of affection, which dares to appear unadorned, has few attractions for the libertine, though it be the charm, which by cementing the matrimonial tie, secures to the pledges of a warmer passion the necessary parental attention; for children will never be properly educated till friendship subsists between parents. Virtue flies from a house divided against itself--and a whole legion of devils take up their residence there.

The affection of husbands and wives cannot be pure when they have so few sentiments in common, and when so little confidence is established at home, as must be the case when their pursuits are so different. That intimacy from which tenderness should flow, will not, cannot subsist between the vicious.

Contending, therefore, that the sexual distinction which men have so warmly insisted upon, is arbitrary, I have dwelt on an observation, that several sensible men, with whom I have conversed on the subject, allowed to be well founded; and it is simply this, that the little chastity to be found amongst men, and consequent disregard of modesty, tend to degrade both sexes; and further, that the modesty of women, characterized as such, will often be only the artful veil of wantonness instead of being the natural reflection of purity, till modesty be universally respected.

From the tyranny of man, I firmly believe, the greater number of female follies proceed; and the cunning, which I allow makes at present a part of their character, I likewise have repeatedly endeavored to prove, is produced by oppression.

Were not dissenters, for instance, a class of people, with strict truth, characterized as cunning? And may I not lay some stress on this fact to prove, that when any power but reason curbs the free spirit of man, dissimulation is practiced, and the various shifts of art are naturally called forth? Great attention to decorum, which was carried to a degree of scrupulosity, and all that puerile bustle about trifles and consequential solemnity, which Butler's caricature of a dissenter brings before the imagination, shaped their persons as well as their minds in the mould of prim littleness. I speak collectively, for I know how many ornaments in human nature have been enrolled amongst sectaries; yet, I assert, that the same narrow prejudice for their sect, which women have for their families, prevailed in the dissenting part of the community, however worthy in other respects; and also that the same timid prudence, or headstrong efforts, often disgraced the exertions of both. oppression thus formed many of the features of their character perfectly to coincidence with that of the oppressed half of mankind; for is it not notorious that dissenters were, like women, fond of deliberating together, and asking advice of each other, till by a complication of little contrivances, some little end was brought about? A similar attention to preserve their reputation was conspicuous in the dissenting and female world, and was produced by a similar cause.

Asserting the rights which women in common with men ought to contend for, I have not attempted to extenuate their faults; but to prove them to be the natural consequence of their education and station in society. If so, it is reasonable to suppose that they will change their character, and correct their vices and follies, when they are allowed to be free in a physical, moral, and civil sense.[3]

Let woman share the rights, and she will emulate the virtues of man; for she must grow more perfect when emancipated, or justify the authority that chains such a weak being to her duty. If the latter, it will be expedient to open a fresh trade with Russia for whips: a present which a father should always make to his son-in-law on his wedding day, that a husband may keep his whole family in order by the same means; and without any violation of justice reign, wielding this sceptre, sole master of his house, because he is the only thing in it who has reason:--the divine, indefeasible earthly sovereignty breathed into man by the Master of the universe. Allowing this position, women have not any inherent rights to claim; and, by the same rule, their duties vanish, for rights and duties are inseparable.

Be just then, O ye men of understanding: and mark not more severely what women do amiss than the vicious tricks of the horse or the ass for whom ye provide provender--and allow her the privileges of ignorance, to whom ye deny the rights of reason, or ye will be worse than Egyptian task-masters expecting virtue where Nature has not given understanding.

Note: Wollstonecraft, an Englishwoman, moved in the same circle as Thomas Paine – Vindication was in the same vein as “The Rights of Man”…hmmm.  Also: her daughter  Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Wollstonecraft died two weeks after Mary was born) is the author of Frankenstein


Republican Motherhood: Thoughts and Questions



"Those who articulated the ideology of Republican Motherhood sought to draw together the political, biological, and economic reality experienced by free white women and to redefine the role of women in the new post-Revolutionary era in a way that reflected realistically the constraints of their lives but also emphasized that women, too, were part of a deeply radical republican experiment.”

"The model republican woman was competent, and confident. She could resist the vagaries of fashion; she was rational, benevolent, independent, self-reliant."

"The Republican Mother was an educated woman who could be spared the criticism normally directed at the intellectually competent woman because she placed her learning at her family's service. The Republican Mother's life was dedicated to the service of civic virtue. She educated her sons for it; she condemned and corrected her husband's lapses from it....The notion that a mother can perform a political function represents the recognition that a citizen's political socialization takes place at an early age, that the family is a basic part of the system of political communication, and that patterns of family authority influence the general political culture...." 

What features of this ideology were conservative? What features were radical? Did this notion apply to all women? Why would women resist societal change that would, according to feminist advocates, improve their political and economic status? What was to be gained by denying women full economic and political participation? How did Antebellum women define themselves? In what ways did these women exercise—and define—power and influence? In what ways did this debate reflect the prevailing tensions of race, class, region, and religion in American society? What does this reveal about underlying objectives or assumptions of women and the American Ideal? Have elements of the ideology of Republican Motherhood persisted into our own time?


For further reference read "The Intimately Oppressed”  Zinn Chapter 3 (Can be used as an outside source...)


Women and the American Promise

 Wave II: Seeking Legal Equality

The Declaration of Sentiments

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such a course.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their duty to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled.

The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise.

He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.

He has withheld from her rights which are given to the most ignorant and degraded men--both natives and foreigners.

Having deprived her of this first right of a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.

He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.

He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.

He has made her, morally, an irresponsible being, as she can commit many crimes with impunity, provided they be done in the presence of her husband. In the covenant of marriage, she is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master--the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement.

He has so framed the laws of divorce, as to what shall be the proper causes, and in case of separation, to whom the guardianship of the children shall be given, as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women--the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.

After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single, and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.


He has monopolized nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration. He closes against her all the avenues to wealth and distinction which he considers most honorable to himself. As a teacher of theology, medicine, or law, she is not known.

He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.

He allows her in church, as well as state, but a subordinate position, claiming apostolic authority for her exclusion from the ministry, and, with some exceptions, from any public participation in the affairs of the church.

He has created a false public sentiment by giving to the world a different code of morals for men and women, by which moral delinquencies which exclude women from society, are not only tolerated, but deemed of little account in man.

He has usurped the prerogative of Jehovah himself, claiming it as his right to assign for her a sphere of action, when that belongs to her conscience and to her God.

He has endeavored, in every way that he could, to destroy her confidence in her own powers, to lessen her self-respect, and to make her willing to lead a dependent and abject life.

Now, in view of this entire disfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation--in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.

from Elizabeth Cady Stanton, A History of Woman Suffrage , vol. 1 (Rochester, N.Y.: Fowler and Wells, 1889), pages 70-71.


Final Draft of the Declaration of Independence

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another[p1] , and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature [p2] and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal[p3] , that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness [p4] -- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed[p5] , that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it[p6] , and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the Forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government[p7] , and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great- Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny [p8] over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

HE has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good[p9] .

HE has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them[p10] .

HE has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature[p11] , a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.

HE has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.

HE has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People[p12] .[p13] 

HE has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of the Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and the Convulsions within[p14] .

HE has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

HE has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

HE has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries[p15] .

HE has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers [p16] to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

HE has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies[p17] , without the consent of our Legislatures.

HE has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

FOR quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us;

[p18] FOR protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

FOR cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World[p19] :

FOR imposing Taxes on us without our Consent[p20] :

FOR depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:

FOR transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended Offences:

[p21] FOR abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government, and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rules into these Colonies:

FOR taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws[p22] , and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

FOR suspending our own Legislatures[p23] , and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.

HE has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

HE has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.

HE is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized Nation.

HE has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their Friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

HE has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

IN every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

NOR have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable Jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here[p24] . We have appealed to their native Justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.

WE, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in GENERAL CONGRESS, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.


Woman's Rights Petition to the New York Legislature, 1854



Seeking Legal and Racial Equality

The Marriage of Abolitionist and Suffrage – Why Short lived?


Look up biographical information about Maria Stewart and Sojourner Truth.  Why are they crucial for our understanding of Women, race and suffrage before and after the war? List the most significant details and cite your source(s).






An Address Delivered At The

African Masonic Hall

Boston, February 27, 1833

Maria Stewart


African rights and liberty is a subject that ought to fire the breast of every free man of color in these United States, and excite in his bosom a lively, deep, decided and heart-felt interest. When I cast my eyes on the long list of illustrious names that are enrolled on the bright annals of fame among the whites, I turn my eyes within, and ask my thoughts, "Where are the names of our illustrious ones?" It must certainly have been for the want of energy on the part of the free people of color, that they have been long willing to bear the yoke of oppression. It must have been the want of ambition and force that has given the whites occasion to say, that our natural abilities are not as good, and our capacities by nature inferior to theirs. They boldly assert, that, did we possess a natural independence of soul, and feel a love for liberty within our breasts, some one of our sable race, long before this, would have testified it, notwithstanding the disadvantages under which we labor. We have made ourselves appear altogether unqualified to speak in our own defence, and are therefore looked upon as objects of pity and commiseration. We have been imposed upon, insulted and derided on every side; and now, if we complain, it is considered as the height of impertinence. We have suffered ourselves to be considered as Bastards, cowards, mean, faint-hearted wretches; and on this account, (not because of our complexion) many despise us, and would gladly spurn us from their presence.


These things have fired my soul with a holy indignation, and compelled me thus to come forward; and endeavor to turn their attention to knowledge and improvement; for knowledge is power. I would ask, is it blindness of mind, or at stupidity of soul, or the want of education, that has caused our men who are 60 to 70 years of age, never to let their voices be heard, or nor their hands be raised in behalf of their color? Or has it been for the fear of offering the whites? If it has, O ye fearful ones, throw of your fearfulness, and come forth in the name of the Lord, and in the strength of the God of Justice, and make yourselves useful and active members in society; for they admire a noble and patriotic spirit in others; and should they not admire it in us? If you are men, convince them that you possess the spirit of men; and as your day, so shall your strength be. Have the sons of Africa no souls? feel they no ambitious desires? shall the chains of ignorance forever confine them? shall the insipid appellation of "clever negroes," or "good creatures," any longer content them? Where can we find among ourselves the man of science, or a philosopher, or an able statesman, or a counsellor at law? Show me our fearless and brave, our noble and gallant ones. Where are our lecturers on natural history, and our critics in useful knowledge?


There may be a few such men among us, but they are rare. It is true, our fathers bled and died in the revolutionary war, and others fought bravely under the command of Jackson, in defence of liberty. But where is the man that has distinguished himself in these modern days by acting wholly in the defence of African rights and liberty? There was one, although he sleeps, his memory lives. I am sensible that there are many highly intelligent gentlemen of color in those United States, in the force of whose arguments, doubtless, I should discover my inferiority; but if they are blest with wit and talent, friends and fortune, why have they not made themselves men of eminence, by striving to take all the reproach that is cast upon the people of color, and in endeavoring to alleviate the woes of their brethren in bondage? Talk, without effort, is nothing; you are abundantly capable, gentlemen, of making yourselves men of distinction; and this gross neglect, on your part, causes my blood to boil within me.


Here is the grand cause which hinders the rise and progress of the people of color. It is their want of laudable ambition and requisite courage. Individuals have been distinguished according to their genius and talents, ever since the first formation of man, and will continue to be while the world stands.

The different grades rise to honor and respectability as their merits may deserve. History informs us that we sprung from one of the most learned nations of the whole earth; from the seat, if not the parent of science; yes, poor, despised Africa was once the resort of sages and legislators of other nations, was esteemed the school for learning, and the most illustrious men in Greece flocked thither for instruction. But it was our gross sins and abominations that provoked the Almighty to frown thus heavily upon us, and give our glory unto others. Sin and prodigality have caused the downfall of nations, kings and emperors; and were it not that God in wrath remembers mercy; we might indeed despair; but a promise is left us; "Ethiopia shall again stretch forth her hands unto God." But it is of no use for us to boast that we sprung from this learned and enlightened nation, for this day a thick mist of moral gloom hangs over millions of our race. Our condition as a people has been low for hundreds of years, and it will continue to be so, unless, by true piety and virtue, we strive to regain that which we have lost. White Americans, by their prudence, economy and exertions, have sprung up and become one of the most flourishing nations in the world, distinguished for their knowledge of the arts and sciences, for their polite literature. While our minds are vacant, and starving for want of knowledge, theirs are filled to overflowing. Most of our color have been taught to stand in fear of the white man, from their earliest infancy, to work as soon as they could walk, and call "master," before they scarce could lisp the name of mother.


Continual fear and laborious servitude have in some degree lessened in us that natural force and energy which belong to man; or else, in defiance of opposition, our men, before this, would have nobly and boldly contended for their rights. But give the man of color an equal opportunity with the white from the cradle to manhood, and from manhood to the grave, and you would discover the dignified statesman, the man of science, and the philosopher. But there is no such opportunity for the sons of Africa, and I fear that our powerful one's are fully determined that there never shall be. For bid, ye Powers on high, that it should any longer be said that our men possess no force. O ye sons of Africa, when will your voices be heard in our legislative halls, in defiance of your enemies, contending for equal rights and liberty? How can you, when you reflect from what you have fallen, refrain from crying mightily unto God, to turn away from us the fierceness of his anger, and remember our transgressions against us no more forever. But a God of infinite purity will not regard the prayers of those who hold religion in one hand, and prejudice, sin and pollution in the other; he will not regard the prayers of self-righteousness and hypocrisy. Is it possible, I exclaim, that for the want of knowledge, we have labored for hundreds of years to support others, and been content to receive what they chose to give us in return?


Cast your eyes about, look as far as you can see; all, all is owned by the lordly white, except here and there a lowly dwelling which the man of color, midst deprivations, fraud and opposition, has been scarce able to procure. Like king Solomon, who put neither nail nor hammer to the temple, yet received the praise; so also have the white Americans gained themselves a name, like the names of the great men that are in the earth, while in reality we have been their principal foundation and support. We have pursued the shadow, they have obtained the substance; we have performed the labor they have received the profits; we have planted the vines, they have eaten the fruits of them. I would implore our men, and especially our rising youth, to flee from the gambling board and the dance-hall; for we are poor, and have no money to throw away. I do not consider dancing as criminal in itself, but it is astonishing to me that our young men are so blind to their own interest and the future welfare of their children, as to spend their hard earnings for this frivolous amusement; for it has been carried on among us to such an unbecoming extent, that it has became absolutely disgusting. "Faithful are the wounds of a friend, but the kisses of an enemy are deceitful." Had those men among us, who have had an opportunity, turned their attention as assiduously to mental and moral improvement as they have to gambling and dancing, I might have remained quietly at home, and they stood contending in my place.


These polite accomplishments will never enroll your names on the bright annals of tune, who admire the belle void of intellectual knowledge, or applaud the dandy that talks largely on politics, without striving to assist his fellow in the revolution, when the nerves and muscles of every other man forced him into the field of action. You have a right to rejoice, and to let your hearts cheer you in the days of your youth; yet remember that for all these things, God will bring you into judgment. Then, O ye sons of Africa, turn your mind from these perishable objects, and contend for the cause of God and the rights of man. Form yourselves into temperance societies. There are temperate men among you; then why will you any longer neglect to strive, by your example, to suppress vice in all its abhorrent forms? You have been told repeatedly of the glorious results arising from temperance, and can you bear to see the whites arising in honor and respectability, without endeavoring to grasp after that honor and respectability also? But I forbear. Let our money, instead of being thrown away as heretofore, be appropriated for schools and seminaries of learning for our children and youth.


We ought to follow the example of the whites in this respect. Nothing would raise our respectability, add to our peace and happiness, and reflect so much honor upon us, as to be ourselves the promoters of temperance, and the supporters, as far as we are able, of useful and scientific knowledge. The rays of light and knowledge have been hid from our view; we have been taught to consider ourselves as scarce superior to the brute creation; and have performed the most laborious part of American drugery. Had we as a people received, one half the early advantages the whites have received, I would defy the government of these United States to deprive us any longer of our rights. I am informed that the agent of the Colonization Society has recently formed an association of young men, for the purpose of influencing those of us to go to Liberia who may feel disposed. The colonizationists are blind to their own interest, for should the nations of the earth make war with America, they would find their forces much weakened by our absence; or should we remain here, can our "brave soldiers," and "fellowcitizens," as they were termed in time of calamity, condescend to defend the rights of the whites, and be again deprived of their own, or sent to Liberia in return?


Or, if the colonizationists are real friends to Africa, let them expend the money which they collect, in erecting a college to educate her injured sons in this land of gospel light and liberty; for it would be most thankfully received on our part, and convince us of the truth of their professions, and save time, expense and anxiety. Let them place before us noble objects, worthy of pursuit, and see if we prove ourselves to be those unambitious negroes they term us. But ah! methinks their hearts are so frozen towards us, they had rather their money should be sunk in the ocean than to administer it to our relief; and I fear, if they dared, like Pharaoh, king of Egypt, they would order every male child among us to be drowned. But the most high God is still as able to subdue the lofty pride of these white Americans, as He was the heart of that ancient rebel. They say, though we are looked upon as things, yet we sprang from a scientific people. Had our men the requisite force and energy, they would soon convince them by their efforts both in public and private, that they were men, or things in the shape of men.


 Well may the colonizationists laugh us to scorn for our negligence; well may they cry, "Shame to the sons of Africa." As the burden of the Israelites was too great for Moses to bear, so also is our burden too great for Moses to bear, so also is our burden too great for our noble advocate to bear. You must feel interested, my brethren, in what he undertakes, and hold up his hands by your good works, or in spite of himself, his soul will become discouraged, and his heart will die within him; for he has, as it were, the strong bulls of Bashan to contend with.


It is of no use for us to wait any longer for a generation of well educated men to arise. We have slumbered and slept too long already; the day is far spent; the night of death approaches; and you have sound sense and good judgement sufficient to begin with, if you feel disposed to make a right use of it. Let every man of color throughout the United States, who possesses the spirit and principles of a man, sign a petition to Congress, to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, and grant you the rights and privileges of common free citizens; for if you had had faith as a grain of mustard seed, long before this the mountains of prejudice might have been removed. We are all sensible that the Anti- Slavery Society has taken hold of the arm of our whole population, in' order to raise them out of the mire. Now all we have to do is, by a spirit of virtuous ambition to strive to raise ourselves; and I am happy to have it in my power thus publicly to say, that the colored inhabitants of this city, in some respects, are beginning to improve. Had the free people of color in these United States nobly and boldly contended for their rights, and showed a natural genius and talent, although not so brilliant as some; had they help up, encouraged and patronized each other, nothing could have hindered us from being a thriving and flourishing people.


There has been a fault among us. The reason why our distinguished men have not made themselves more influential is, because they fear that the strong current of opposition through which they must pass, would cause their downfall and prove their overthrew. And what gives rise to this opposition? Envy. And what has it amounted to? Nothing. And who are the cause of it? Our whited sepulchers, who want to be great, and don't know how; who love to be called of men 'Rabbi, Rabbi, who put on false sanctity, and humble themselves to their brethren, for the sake of acquiring the highest place in the synagogue, and the uppermost seats at the feast. You, dearly beloved, who are the genuine followers of our Lord Jesus Christ, the salt of the earth and the light of the world, are not so culpable.


As I told you, in the very first of my writing, I tell you again, I am but as a drop in the bucket -- as one particle of the small dust of the earth. God will surely raise up those among us who will plead the cause of virtue, and the pure principles of morality, more eloquently than I am able to do.

It appears to me that America has become like the great city of Babylon, for she has boasted in her heart, -- I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow? She is indeed a seller of slaves and the souls of men; she has made the Africans drunk with the wine of her fornication; she has put them completely beneath her feet, and she means to keep them there; her right hand supports the reins of government, and her left hand the wheel of power, and she is determined not to let go her grasp. But many powerful sons and daughters of Africa will shortly arise, who will put down vice and immorality among us, and declare by Him that sitteth upon the throne, that they will have their rights; and if refused,' I am afraid they will spread horror and devastation around. I believe that the oppression of injured Africa has come up before the Majesty of Heaven; and when our cries shall have reached the ears of the Most High, it will be a tremendous day for the people of this land; for strong is the arm of the Lord God Almighty.

Life has almost lost its charms for me; death has lost its sting and the grave its terrors; and at times I have a strong desire to depart and dwell with Christ, which is far better.


Let me entreat my white brethren to awake and save our sons from dissipation, and our daughters from ruin. Lend the hand of assistance to feeble merit, plead the cause of virtue among our sable race; so shall our curses upon you be turned into blessings; and though you should endeavor to drive us from these shores, still we will cling to you the more firmly; nor will we attempt to rise above you: we will presume to be called your equals only.


The unfriendly whites first drove the native American from his much loved home. Then they stole our fathers from their peaceful and quiet dwellings, and brought them hither, and made bond-men and bond-women of them and their little ones; they have obliged our brethren to labor, kept them in utter ignorance, nourished them in vice, and raised them in degradation; and now that we have enriched their soil, and filled their coffers, they say that we are not capable of becoming like white men, and that we never can rise to respectability in this country. They would drive us to a strange land. But before I go, the bayonet shall pierce me through. African rights and liberty is a subject that ought to fire the breast of every free man of color in these United States, and excite in his bosom a lively, deep, decided and heart-felt interest.





by Sojourner Truth

Delivered 1851 at the Women's Convention in Akron, Ohio

Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this here talking about?

That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?

Then they talk about this thing in the head; what's this they call it? [member of audience whispers, "intellect"] That's it, honey. What's that got to do with women's rights or negroes' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?

Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.

If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them.

Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain't got nothing more to say.

Resolutions and Debate, Woman's National Loyal League Meeting, New York City, May 14, 1863

Susan B. Anthony presented a series of resolutions:

* Resolved, 2. That we heartily approve that part of the President's Proclamation which decrees freedom to the slaves of rebel masters, and we earnestly urge him to devise measures for emancipating all slaves throughout the country.

Resolved, 3. That the national pledge to the freedmen must be redeemed, and the integrity of the Government in making it vindicated, at whatever cost.

Resolved, 4. That while we welcome to legal freedom the recent slaves, we solemnly remonstrate against all State or National legislation which may exclude them from any locality, or debar them from any rights or privileges as free and equal citizens of a common Republic.

Resolved, 5. There never can be a true peace in this Republic until the civil and political rights of all citizens of African descent and all women are practically established.

Resolved, 7. That the women of the Revolution were not wanting in heroism and self sacrifice, and we, their daughters, are ready in this war to pledge our time, our means, our talents, and our lives, if need be, to secure the 11nal and complete consecration of America to freedom.

The American Equal Rights Association Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1867 (Response to 15th Amendment)


Why a Temperance Movement?

Note: The Temperance movement was NOT affiliated with the suffrage movement but knowledge of their objectives, tactics, and outcomes are critical for your understanding of women's roles (PERSIA) in the late 19th and early 20th century.


What does the Temperance movement reveal about the time period? Will this reform movement help or hinder the suffrage movement? Why was it viewed as an “acceptable” voice for women's political activism?



Carrie Nation was arrested some 30 times between 1900 and 1910

I felt invincible. My strength was that of a giant. God was certainly standing by me. I smashed five saloons with rocks before I ever took a hatchet.





"Kansas women smashed saloons as early as 1855. Their temperance efforts were rewarded in 1880 when Kansas became the first state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting alcohol. Reformers remained active even after the amendment was passed because the prohibition laws were not always enforced. Annoyed by saloons or "joints" still in operation, Carry Nation took action. Tireless in her efforts, Carry traveled around the country...She was confident her efforts would 'Carry A. Nation.'"

Temperance Songs

"Goodbye, Booze" Audio Sample

~From the Library of Congress~

72dpi JPEG image of: I never knew I had a wonderful wife until the town went dryImage 1 of 1, The wife's lament, a new temperance song, by Archi


Women and the American Promise

Wave III: "The Time is Now" 1900-1920


The New Generation


March 3, 1913: Suffrage Pageant with Columbia summoning Charity, Liberty, Peace, and Hope


Compare this image to the first...what has changed? Why? How?


What factors led to disunity within the women’s suffrage movement?


Why did the NWP reject Catt's state-by-state tactic?


What specific protest methods did Paul and the National Woman’s Party implement?  How did these change from 1913 to 1917?


How did President Wilson, members of Congress, and the public respond to each of the protest methods listed above?


What was the economic status of women in America in 1900-1920?


What was the political status of women in America in 900-1920?


How will WWI effect the movement? How does this compare to the Civil War?


What's up with the Antis?



Women and the Work Force



Excerpt from “Women Working, 1800-1930

Harvard University Library


The National Women's Trade Union League of America (NWTUL) was founded in Boston in 1903 as a coalition of working-class women, professional reformers, and women from wealthy and prominent families. Its purpose was to "assist in the organization of women wage workers into trade unions and thereby to help them secure conditions necessary for healthful and efficient work and to obtain a just reward for such work.”


The NWTUL viewed women workers primarily in their capacity as oppressed workers, but also recognized that all women, regardless of class, were united by the “bonds of womanhood.” Thus upper class women joined as the allies of working class women, donating money, serving as spokespeople to the press, and arranging for legal representation. The wealthy woman members of the NWTUL were also willing to dirty their hands, and they participated in picket lines and sometimes got arrested during protests. In the process, the women of the NWTUL forged a new working-class feminism.


At a time when organized labor was devoted to a “family wage” concept—that is, a wage for men at which they could support an entire family without the contribution of a working wife—and when union leaders were worried that increased participation of women in labor markets would drive down men’s wages, traditional unions were largely unwilling to allow women into their ranks. When women did form unions and strike, the NWTUL often provided support where other unions held back.


The NWTUL supported the women garment industry workers in New York and Chicago when they struck in 1909 and 1910. The uprising of the 20,000 marked a turning point for the NWTUL, when the organization gained credibility after lending important support to the strikers. In the teens, the NWTUL organized working-class women to participate in the suffrage movement. Rose Schneiderman, who became an officer of the NWTUL, was an important figure of the Jewish left, and a key organizer in the New York Women’s Suffrage Party and the International Ladies Garment Workers Union…


Harvard Open Collection




Excerpt from LAPD Online: LAPD had the Nation’s First Police Woman

In 1909, Los Angeles social worker Alice Stebbins Wells petitioned Mayor George Alexander and the City Council, requesting that an ordinance providing for a Los Angeles Policewoman be adopted. Not only was the measure passed, but on September 12, 1910, Mrs. Wells was appointed as the nation’s first female to be designated a policewoman with arrest powers. …Mrs. Wells’ appointment prompted nationwide publicity, and by 1916, her efforts in promoting the need for female officers resulted in the hiring of policewomen in 16 other cities…Three years later, Mrs. Wells succeeded in persuading the University of California, Southern Division (now UCLA) to offer the first course specifically on the work of women police officers. The course was introduced by the school’s Criminology Department in the summer session in 1918.

by 1900, less than 10 percent of all employed women worked in offices. That number climbed dramatically after the turn of the century, so that by 1920, more than 25 percent of all employed women held jobs as office workers or telephone operators--a proportion that equaled that of factory workers and would soon surpass it.


Source: Houghton Mifflin Company




Suffrage Prisoners

An Account of the Night of Terror (November 15, 1917) at Occoquan Workhouse from an affidavit by Virginia Bovee, an officer at the Workhouse, after her discharge:


Under orders from W. H. Whittaker, superintendent of the Occoquan Workhouse, as many as forty guards with clubs went on a rampage, brutalizing thirty-three jailed suffragists. They beat Lucy Burns, chained her hands to the cell bars above her head, and left her there for the night. They hurled Dora Lewis into a dark cell, smashed her head against an iron bed, and knocked her out cold. Her cellmate Alice Cosu, who believed Mrs. Lewis to be dead, suffered a heart attack. According to affidavits, other women were grabbed, dragged, beaten, choked, slammed, pinched, twisted, and kicked.


"Three United States Feminists--A Personal Tribute," Jewish Affairs 53.1 (Johannesburg, South Africa, 1998): 37.


“Helena Hill Weed, Norwalk, Conn. Serving 3 day Sentence in D.C. Prison for Carrying Banner, ‘Governments Derive their Just Powers from the Consent of the Governed.’” Photograph. July 6-8, 1917. From the Library of Congress, Photographs from the Records of the National Woman’s Party.

Source: Library of Congress



And the times, they are a changing...


American Women’s Fashions: 1913-1920 (very cool)





World War I and the Movement...compare to the Civil War.





Jeannette Rankin

Credentials of Jeannette Rankin

The National Woman's Party militant tactics and steadfast lobbying, coupled with public support for imprisoned suffragists, forced President Woodrow Wilson to endorse a federal woman suffrage amendment in 1918.
















































The Home Loving Women Do Not Want the Ballot. Poster. San Francisco 1911


“National Anti-Suffrage Association.” Photograph. [1911?] From the Library of Congress




Image of anti-suffrage postcard

Image of anti-suffrage postcard

Image of anti-suffrage postcard


The arguments of the "antis," of suffrage were divided into two categories. Their arguments were based on the conception of the unique nature of women or "from their interpretation of the special role played by the family in sustaining civilization."



The antis based their assumption on the difference between men and women. When they discussed physical differences, the biological differences were not stressed because they did not consider this appropriate for public discussion. Instead the emphasized the "frailty" of women claiming that this is what made her "unsuited" for the vote. Her physical weakness was considered potentially dangerous (just getting to the poll was fatiguing). "Once a woman arrived she would have to mingle, 'among the crowds of men who gather around the polls...and to press her way through them to the ballot box. Assuming she reached the polling place, she might get caught in a brawl and given women's natural fragility, she would be the one to get hurt.



Beyond these reasons existed the belief that allowing women to vote would jeopardize the nation's security and lead ultimately to war. "Allowing women to vote would lead to foreign aggression and war."



The antis predicted that if women were given the vote disastrous results would occur. The antis believed that political involvement would place them in situations where there vulnerability would be exploited.

The antis also worried that women would vote more than once. They said that women could hide extra ballots in their "voluminous sleeves, " and slip them quickly into the ballot at once."




Since all women suffragists bordered on hysteria there was no need to take their arguments seriously.

There was a real danger if other women cane under the influence the suffragists. "As one Anti warned, "all women are potentially hysterics."


Men had an obligation to protect other women from contamination of the suffragists.


A women's emotional instability would make her a dangerous voter. She would let her feelings rather than her intellectual concerns be her primary reason for voting. "Since women obviously could not be trusted to behave rationally, they would be extremely dangerous in a political setting."



Timing or Place? Perhaps Both?


Why were the Western states the first in the nation to grant full voting rights for women? What does this reveal/suggest about suffrage vs. anti-suffrage movements?

Passage of the 19th Amendment 1920 -  Wilson signs... Why now [1920] and not then [1787- 1919]???




The more things change, the more they stay the same


Wave III: The Women's Movement

Why will Alice Paul continue the struggle through the 1960s?

 Your thoughts on the ERA?

Note: This wave is covered in depth next month  [March is Women's History Month]


 NOW - pun intended - YOU CAN WRITE YOUR ESSAY!



 Post Essay  Seminar:


 Defend or oppose the following statement:

"Well behaved women rarely make history"

 - Laurel Thatcher Ulrich -


























































 [p1]Locke & Paine





 [p6]Locke & Paine

 [p7]Locke & Paine

 [p8]Locke & Paine

 [p9]Locke & Paine

 [p10]Colonists’ complaints fell on deaf ears…

 [p11]Taxation w/out Rep.

 [p12]Govt. should serve the majority of the people

 [p14]Paine-1.  We’ve made unwanted enemies and 2.  rebellion w/in the colonies

 [p15]Admiralty/royalty courts

 [p16]Townshend Acts

 [p17]Boston Massacre

 [p18]Intolerable Acts

 [p19]Navigation Acts; Intolerable Acts

 [p20]Townshend, Sugar, Stamp, etc.

 [p21]Royalty/Admiralty courts

 [p22]Locke and Paine

 [p23]Suspension of MA legislature  (Intolerable Acts); MA turned into royal colony

 [p24]Paine-America was supposed to be an asylum