Urban II (1088-1099):
Speech at Council of Clermont, 1095,
Five versions of the Speech

Part I: Document Analysis and discussion

1.      Analyze assigned document using APARTS

2.      Discuss findings with classmates who read the same document (Expert Groups). Meet with me for clarification if needed!

3.      Return to original group and teach what you learned about the Crusades from the document (you should all have this information in your notes).

Part II:  Historical Perspective and Point of View

Return to Expert Groups:

1.      Fulcher of Chartres: Note how the traditions of the peace and truce of God - aimed at bringing about peace in Christendom - ties in directly with the call for a Crusade. How is this justified in the document? What does Fulchar identify as the reason for a Crusade?


2.      The Gesta version was an anonymous account written by someone connected with Bohemund of Antioch, one of the most important leaders of the First Crusade. All but Fulchar used this version as a source when writing their version of the speech.

·         Identify common arguments found in Guibert de Nogent, Balderic of Dol, and Robert the Monk.

·         Compare arguments with Fulcher of Chartes’s version of the speech.

·         What similarities and/or differences are found for the reason for the Crusade?

·         What does this suggest about historical perspective and point of view?


3.      Many historians believe that the Crusade was chivalric war for glory, adventure and honor. Identify evidence in the documents to support this. Where did you find it and how was it referenced? What does this suggest about the reasons for Crusade?


4.      In the excerpt Urban II Letter of Instruction to the Crusaders, December 1095, Urban identifies Adhemar, Bishop of Puy, as the “leader of and undertaking in our stead, so that those who, perchance, may wish to undertake this journey should comply With his commands, as if they were our own, and submit fully to his loosings or bindings, as far as shall seem to belong to such an office.”


·         What does this excerpt unveil about the Church’s political power? The role of the Church 11th century medieval Western Europe.

·         Identify evidence that suggests that the Pope had multiple objectives for calling for a Crusade. (Think PERSIA)