HWCIV 07 Final Exam Review Questions

Final Exam Format: Short answer/essay taken directly from this review!


What was the effect of geography upon Greece, and upon its historical development?      


Where was the Minoan Civilization located? When did it exist? What was the basis for its economy? What was the political system? What led to the collapse of Minoan Civilization?                                      

What do we know about the Mycenaeans? Upon what is this knowledge based? What was the type of political system?                                                                                                                                  

What were the characteristics of the Dark Ages (1100-800 B.C.)?


Who was Homer? How did the Iliad and the Odyssey unify the Greeks? What were the Homeric Ideals?  How were they reflected in society?


What was the Greek polis? What forms of government existed in the polis? Who was able to participate in the government of the polis? What were the weaknesses of the Polis?


What is noteworthy about the Greek Classical period (500-338) B.C.? What made Athens great? (Review Pericles Funeral Oration)


What are the concerns of Greek drama?                                                                                


What was the role of women  in Ancient Greece.?  (Review Sparta vs Athens)


Who were the Sophists and why are they remembered?


What was the Socratic method? Why and how did Socrates die?


What distinctive ideas was Plato most noted for?


What were the characteristics of Aristotle's philosophy, and why was he so influential?    


Who were the two principal Greek historians, and what contributions did each make?       


What was the geographic extent of Alexander's conquests? What was the most enduring legacy of his conquests? 


What happened to Alexander's empire immediately following his death? What new political ideas were introduced? How did Greek emigration contribute to a stable political situation?             



What was the most splendid political achievement of the Romans in the days of the Republic?    

What determined the nature of social conflict in the Roman Republic? What was the function of the tribune? What was the outcome of the Struggle of the Orders?                                                  



What were the causes and results of the First Punic War? What was the nature and outcome of the Second Punic War? ----- the Third Punic war? What circumstances led the Romans to march against the Macedonians.


What was the role of Paterfamilias in Roman society? What was the status of women? --- of the matron? How was slavery introduced into Roman society? What was the Roman attitude toward towards slaves? What was the nature of Roman religion? How did they characterize their Gods?


What were the effects of Roman imperialism upon the nature of everyday life among the Romans? What areas conquered by the Romans had the greatest impact on Roman life?    


How does the career of Julius Caesar relate to the civil war that ended the Roman Republic?


What did Caeasar Augustus attempt to do, and what was the main basis of his power? How did Augustus disarm his potential critics when he assumed power?


What changes were made in regard to the Roman army? How was the army satisfied in spite of its great numbers and potential for discontent? How were the provinces administered under Augustus? Into what areas did the empire spread under Augustus?


To what extent were Christians persecuted by the Roman Empire? Why?


Why did the emperor Constantine accept conversion to Christianity? What did the acceptance of Christianity by the emperors Constantine do for the development of the Christian church?


What was the attitude of the Church to women? Why did these attitudes emerge?


What was the most likely cause for the decline and fall of the Roman Empire?


Why did the Roman empire split in two? What was the status and role of the Byzantine Empire in relation to the long term development of western civilization?



The Early Middle Ages


Why did feudalism develop? What was the relationship between lord and vassal and and how/why did that develop?


What was the status of women under feudalism?


What was manorialism and how is it linked to feudalism? What did the peasant gain from the relationship and what did the aristocracy gain?


What were the Crusades and why were they carried out? Were the crusades well-organized with a single-minded purpose or did Pope Urban have arterial motive?


How did the Crusades affect women?


Crusades: Just War? What general conclusions can be drawn about the character of the Crusades?


High Middle Ages


To what extent were religion and the Church apart of the lives of people? Is the pervasiveness of Christian ideals in medieval society a necessity or an imposition of the Church?


Where were cathedrals built, and how were they used? What did they symbolize?


Characterize Medieval Art and discuss how did the images produced in the Middle Ages reflect "Medieval Man's" conception and questioning of their world.


Late Middle Ages


What caused the plague and how was it carried? What conditions in European towns encouraged the spread of the disease? What were the symptoms of the disease? How did people react to the victims? What response did European society have to the Plague?


Determine the most significant effect of the Plague on Europe -- To what extent was the Renaissance a result of the Plague?




The Renaissance


With "early modern" Europe we are no longer in "medieval" Europe. What changed? That is, what were the most important political, economic, social and cultural differences between early modern and medieval Europe?


What did renaissance scholars think of medieval civilization? Of ancient Rome and Greece? Why did Renaissance scholars study the Classics? What was their attitude towards Christianity? Did the average person question his/her Christian faith?


What was "Humanism"?  Were Humanists hostile to Christianity?  And why was the invention of the printing press important to the spread of Humanist ideas?   


What was the Renaissance attitude towards individuals and individual genius? How is this reflected in the art and literature of the time period?


In what sense/ways was Leonardi da Vinci an excellent example of the "Renaissance Man” ? 


What innovations in architecture were introduced, and who was the most famous architect?


What innovations in painting were introduced, and who were the principal painters?



What innovations in sculpture were introduced, and who were the principal sculptors?


How did thinking about the nature and uses of political power change during the Renaissance?    (Absolutism/Growth of the Monarchy)


The Reformation


What sorts of practices by the Catholic clergy and hierarchy led to criticism of the Church in the early 1500s? 

Martin Luther: Explain in detail Martin Luther's criticisms of Catholicism and his own vision of Christianity (the ideas that became the core of Lutheranism).  Was his message ambiguous? Was he misunderstood?

What were the main goals of the Protestant reformers and how were they trying to change society?  (Review 10 characteristics of the Reformation/results)

The Enlightenment:  Questions due Tuesday June 4th