Under Articles of Confederation


Changes Under Constitution

Article, Section, and Clause

Loose confederation of states (“a firm league of friendship”)

Powers divided between national and state governments (federalism)


Separation of powers between 3 branches

(legislative, executive, and judicial)


Article I (Legislative Branch)

Article II (Executive Branch)

Article III (Judicial Branch)

Unicameral Congress







1 vote in Congress for each state







2/3 vote in Congress for all important measures







No congressional power over commerce—states free to impose levies and restrictions on trade w/ other states and economic agreements w/ foreign countries




No congressional power to levy taxes—payment of taxes by states was voluntary







No federal courts—states free to resolve own matters or conflicts w/ other states







Unanimity of states for amendments











1.      How often are senatorial elections held?  What is the reasoning behind this?


Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____





2.      What role does the Vice President play in Congress?  Does the Vice President ever cast a vote in Congress?


Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____





3.      Is there any way a bill can still be passed into law after the President has vetoed it?

Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____





4.      In 2005, President Bush nominated John Roberts to replace William Rehnquist as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.  What needs to happen to confirm the nomination?


Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____





5.      How long can a federal judge hold office?


Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____





6.      Who would decide if Puerto Rico becomes a state?


Article _____ Sect. _____ Clause _____